Head and neck cancers include different malignant tumors that develop in or around the throat, larynx, nose, sinuses, salivary glands, mouth and lymph nodes in the neck. Alchohol and tobacco are the most common factors that cause head and neck cancers especially of oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx and larynx, HPV infection is also risk factor for head and neck cancers.
Some common head and neck cancer symptoms are lump in the nose, neck or throat, sore throat, change in voice, frequent coughing, Headaches, ear pain or hear loss, foul mouth smell, dysphagia, uncomfortable breathing, nose congestion, unusual nose bleeding.
The stages of this cancer can be described by TNM system (Tumor, Node and Metastasis). The treatment plan for an individual patient depends on exact area of the tumor, stage of the cancer, age and overall health of the patient. Treatment can include surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, targeted therapy or combination of treatments.