Many important functions are performed by liver such as removing toxins and chemical waste products from the blood and make them ready for the excretion. As blood in the body must pass through liver it becomes more accessible to the cancer cells. Primary liver cancer starts in the liver instead of migrating to the liver from other organs whereas cancer which migrates from other organs most commonly from cancer of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (colon cancer), lung cancer, renal cancer (cancer of the kidney), ovarian cancer and prostate cancer to the liver are called metastasis or secondary liver cancers.
Primary Liver Cancer
Hepatocellular cancer is the most common of primary liver cancer that occurs in adults. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (bile duct cancer) starts in the cells that line small bile ducts (tubes that carry bile/fluid to the gallbladder) within the liver. Angiosarcoma and hemangiosarcoma are rare cancers starts in cells lining the blood vessels of the liver. These tumors grow fast and are usually so widespread to be removed surgically if detected late. Hepatoblastoma, a very rare kind of cancer develops in young children. These cells are similar to fetal liver cells. It can be treated with surgery and chemotherapy until it spreads out of the liver which is difficult to treat. Secondary liver cancer or metastatic liver cancer
Liver cancer can be caused by chronic infection with specific hepatitis viruses, DNA mutations, cirrhosis, inherited liver disease, diabetes, aflatoxins, and high alcohol consumption.
Some of the symptoms of liver cancer are jaundice, abdominal pain, tiredness, vomiting, itching. It can be diagnosed by certain blood tests, imaging scans, and biopsy.
There are treatments such as surgery and liver transplant for curable and ablative therapy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy for non curable cancer (high rate of advancement).
Radio Frequency Ablation For Liver Cancer
Pancreaticoduodenectomy, commonly known as whipple surgery is the most common operation of the endocrine pancreas in which the head of the pancreas, a portion of bile duct, gallbladder, duodenum, lymph nodes near the pancreas and some time a part of stomach is also removed. The remaining pancreas, bile duct and intestine are sutured back into the intestine so that bile and digestive enzymes can still go into the gut and small intestine pieces are then reattached so that food can pass through the digestive tract. This surgery is done through a large cut down the belly and can be done through laparoscopic operation also known as keyhole surgery. It is complex procedure with a high risk of life threatening complications which requires a skilled and experienced surgeon.
In pylorus preserving pancreatoduodectomy (PPPD) procedure only part of the duodenum is removed and pylorus (stomach part that connects to the duodenum) is kept which may help in digesting food after the operation. This surgery also has high risk and complications. This procedure is a modified whipple’s surgery.
Patients may have immediate risks and complications which may include bleeding, infections, leaking of digestive enzymes, inflammation of pancreas, trouble defecating, weight loss, changes in bowel movements, developing diabetes and possibility of organ failure including the heart, liver and kidneys.