Uterus is the vital organ of the female body where baby grows when women is pregnant. Abnormal or malignant growth of any cells that comprise uterine tissue is called uterine cancer. There are mainly two types of uterine cancer endometrial cancers and uterine sarcomas.
Endometrial cancers begin in the layer of cells that form the lining of the uterus called endometrial lining whereas cancers developed in muscle tissues known as myometrium is called uterine sarcomas, a rare form of uterine cancer.
Endometrial cancers are the most common type of uterus cancer and often can be detected at an early stage due to the heavy and abnormal vaginal bleeding that requires immediate doctor’s consultation. Most common cause of the endometrial cancer is excessive amount of estrogen than progesterone in the body which creates the hormonal imbalance causing the lining of the uterus to get much thicker and cause cancer cells to grow within. Other reasons may include early start of the menstruation, never being pregnant, age, overweight, hormone therapy for breast cancer, menopause, diabetes or blood pressure, family history of ovarian, breast, bowel or uterine cancer, previous pelvic radiation, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOD).
Malignant cells forms in the muscles of the uterus or other adjoining tissues is known as uterine sarcoma, a rare form uterine cancer. Non menstruation abnormal bleeding, abnormal bleeding after menopause, big mass in the vagina, pain of discomfort in the abdomen, frequent urination are few signs of uterine sarcomas.
Uterine cancers can be diagnosed by physical examination, transvaginal ultrasound (TVS), hysteroscopy and endometrial biopsy, blood and urine test, imaging test such as X-ray, CT scan, MRI, PET scan can be done for particular type of uterine cancer like sarcoma.
Once properly diagnosed, doctors can suggest treatment according to the condition and seriousness of the cancer that may include surgeries like total hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo oophorectomy, radical hysterectomy, radiation therapy- internal or external, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, targeted therapy.